I have here reproduced an excellent article on intra-Mercurial Vulcan by Carl W. Stahl entitled "That Elusive Planet Vulcan". It is found in the 1973 winter edition of Parachemy.
The link is http://homepages.ihug.com.au/~panopus/parachemy/parachemyi1.htm#vulcan
By Carl W. Stahl
[Carl Stahl enjoys an international reputation among both professional astrologers and students of that art. His articles have appeared in virtually every major astrological publication, and he is looked to as an authority in the techniques of sidereal astrology. His researches are always carefully documented-witness the following article-and we are proud to announce he will be a frequent contributor to the Astrology section Of PARACHEMY. --Editor] ____________________________________________________________________________________
When the newspapers of the world publicized Professor Courtens' report that he believes he has discovered a new intra-Mercurial planet, it aroused interest in other places besides the ranks of the astronomers themselves. The professor bases his statement on the results obtained on his expedition to Mexico to study the solar eclipse on March 7, 1970. The photographic plates taken on that expedition, as well as those taken during the 1967 eclipse, seem to provide evidence that such an intraMercurial planet may indeed exist.
When the planet Pluto was finally discovered on January 21, 1930 by C. W. Tombaugh, it was by means of photographs of the distant stars. They showed clearly that one of the stars was moving. By scanning photographs of other total eclipses perhaps Vulcan can be discovered in the same way.
Professor Courtens estimates that Vulcan is about 500 miles in diameter, about nine million miles from the sun, and with a declination of about twelve degrees from the ecliptic plane.
The general public will, of course leap to the conclusion that Professor Courtens is alone in discovering this planet Vulcan. During the past 250 years there have been at least twelve other fairly well authenticated reported sightings of this elusive planet. Nor is the average reader aware that a Vulcan Ephemeris is available based on those twelve prior reported sightings, and that this ephemeris is obtainable from the Paracelsus Research Society, whose students have been using Vulcan's positions in astrological charts and cyclic charts for many years.
This ephemeris gives daily listings of Vulcan's position in the heavens for the years 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971 and 1972. It also contains tables making it possible for anyone to calculate Vulcan's position from the year 1700 to 2000 A.D.
By using the tables from this Vulcan Ephemeris we find that at the time of the total eclipse of the Sun on March 7, 1970, the geocentric longitude of Vulcan was 20 degrees 34 minutes of the zodiacal sign Pisces, while the Sun was in 16 degrees 44 minutes of the same sign. Vulcan here was begining to separate from a superior conjunction of the Sun and was approximately 6,300,000 miles out, or almost halfway towards its greatest elongation from the Sun which is about 12,700,000 miles.
The November 2, 1967 eclipse gives us the Sun's position as 9 degrees 37 minutes of the sign Scorpio while Vulcan appears at 15 degrees 57 minutes of Scorpio. This is approximately 9,500,000 miles from the Sun. This, you Will note, agrees closely with Professor Courtens' estimate of 9,000,000 miles. However, Vulcan had reached its greatest elongation on November 1, 1967 at 16 degrees 37 minutes of the sign Scorpio.
Both of the preceding examples show that at the time of these eclipses Vulcan was far enough away from the Sun to have registered clearly on photographs taken at these times. In referring to the fairly well authenticated sightings of the planet ulcan crossing the Sun, we begin with that of Dr. Alischer, Faure, France, (Julian Calendar), March 27, 1720. He again sighted a dark body crossing the disk of'the Sun on March 15, 1721 (also Julian Calendar), exactly 353 days after the first sighting.
This 353 day period between sightings proved to be very important in determining the motion of Vulcan because it occurs again in the list of Vulcan transits of the Sun. This happened on February 16, 1897 and again on February 4, 1898, a time lapse of exactly 353 days. The 1897 report came from astronomers at Stuttgart, Germany, and the 1898 report from astronomers at Wiesbaden, Germany.
It was this coincidence that enabled Professor L. H. Weston to calculate Vulcan's position after his interest was aroused by a sighting that was made by ship's Captain Isbester of the British ship Dalgonar, enroute from Hamburg, Germany to Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. The longitude was 136 degrees west, and latitude 46 degrees north on June 25, 1907, which is about 200 miles off the California coast. When Captain Isbester took the noon observation to declination with the sextant he noticed a very large spot on the disk of the Sun. The spot was large and quite unlike the many commoner Sun spots which he had seen almost daily for many years. In trying to describe this spot, he said: "It looked like an inverted balloon."
This remark caused Professor Weston to write: "Now that was the shape Venus appeared to have at ingress and egress at the transits of June 5, 1761, and June 3, 1769. It is well known that both Venus and Mercury, while at internal contact with the Sun's disk at transits, present the appearance of a pear-shaped spot, the small end elevated if the planet is north of the equator."
Isbester gives us the impression that the spot was on the Sun for a full four hours, from about noon until late in the afternoon. Lescarbault, of France, in his observation on March 26, 1859 taken at Noon, G.M.T., also gives four hours for this crossing of the Sun's disk.
For those who may be interested we give a list of the transits that Professor Weston compiled and used in developing his tables:
1. Dr. Alischer, Faure, France (O.S.), March 27, 1720
Esoterically speaking, the Sun veils and the Moon hides Vulcan. At first thought this seems to make no sense. A little consideration, however, soon makes some of the truth apparent. Even physically the Sun veils Vulcan. Its light makes it all but impossible for Vulcan to be seen, either by the naked eye, or with instruments. This much is easily apparent because of Vulcan's closeness to the Sun.
But what about the Moon? It is nowhere near Vulcan. It hugs the Earth with its closeness. Vulcan rules the mineral world, from the crystal and the ore, up to the most pure and precious metal and the most precious jewel. The Moon being a dead body, in the sense that no planetary Logos operates in or through it, responds only to its physical mass. In this sense it not only reflects the rays from the Sun but also the potent rays from Vulcan. Then, acting as a relay station, it transfers these influences to the Earth.
Since Vulcan rules the mineral world it was quite appropriate that it should be through the hiding of the Sun by the Moon, during total eclipse, that once again led to its being rediscovered.
Ptolemy refers to the doctrine of "combustia" in the last sentence of Chapter 7, Book 2, of the Tetrabiblos. This doctrine, in brief, is that when any planet is within a few degrees of the Sun, usually supposed to be 8 degrees 30 minutes, it is in a state of combustia, that is, burned up, and its virtue destroyed by that position. The Vulcan Ephemeris shows that Vulcan never gets more than 8 degrees 11 minutes from the Sun.
In examining cases of combustia, it was found that in less than half the cases this theory held up. In over half the cases it failed to hold up. When the position of Vulcan is calculated and entered in these charts the reason for the successes and failures becomes apparent.
The conjunction of Vulcan with Mercury and the Sun appears to have no apparent effect on the nature of either of these bodies. With the other planets, particularly the Moon, its effect seems to to bring out the negative or material nature of the body affected. If we consider that the blacksmith of the gods works in the mineral world, this makes sense.
Regarding more recently discovered knowledge about the nature of Vulcan we have as yet barely made a beginning. We do know that in human relationships it has an intensely disruptive influence, similar to, yet quite distinct from, the influence of the planet Pluto. Pluto causes loss through, death or through some dramatic, public incident. Vulcan, on the other hand, seems to sever the bonds of friendship or affection abruptly, and the association seems to end as though it had never existed. This is particularly so of the conjunction of the transiting Vulcan to Venus.
Reports coming to us from others, who have used the Vulcan Ephemeris in all types of charts, indicate that it has an influence on the stock market, on the charts of individual industrial companies, and its influence is clearly in those of an inventive nature. Not always in the conventional sense. but always in quite a logical manner when the nature of Vulcan understood.
But what I consider the greatest breakthrough occurred in the field of Alchemy, when the Paracelsus Research Society, in its Alchemical Laboratory Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 2, 1970, on pages 20, 21, and 22, published the results of the Vulcan influence on obtaining the three essentials of the Metals.*
We wish Professor Courtens the best of luck in pinning down that elusive planet Vulcan, and hope that others will do what they can to bring about this event.
*This report, among others, will be made available to those holding Parachemy fellowships. -Ed. Books On Vulcan
Literature dealing with the planet Vulcan is very limited at present as little is known about this elusive little sphere whose orbit is so close to the Sun.
The most informative and comprehensive literature available at the present time is that of Carl Stahl.
an excellent site on intra-Mercurial Vulcan is here http://lovestarz.com/vulcan.html which includes the written contents of L.H.Weston's book and which I here reproduce... _________________________________________________________________________________________
L. H. Weston...
The selection of this name was, as a matter of fact, due to a singular mythological story which gives an almost exact description of an inner planet. An intra-Mercurial planet is pretended to be hot, like a blacksmith’s iron, because it is close to the Sun, and Vulcan of mythology, or Tubal-Cain of the Bible, was feigned to be a blacksmith, or an artisan engaged in the occupation of forging hot iron. Vulcan caught Mars, and made sport of him before Olympus, and we actually find some invisible planet near the Sun producing a detrimental effect on Mars, even though that effect were itself of a somewhat Martial nature. The son of Vulcan was Ethiops, or that is to say thin air, or ether. Now every weather prophet who ever used the intra-Mercurial planet in his analysis affirms that it controls the aerial currents on the Earth’s surface. From these, as well as certain other considerations, it seems possible, if not probable, that Vulcan is the true ancient name for the great intra-Mercurial planet, and that the attributes of the Vulcan of mythology correspond with the scientific effects of the intra-Mercurial planet of Chaldean Astrology.
Democritus, an astrologer and noted philosophical writer who flourished about the year 250 B. C., clearly stated that there were certain planets invisible and unknown to the commoner sort of observers of his day. In the times of Pythagoras, about 600 B.C., it was a matter of common knowledge among the astrologers that there were "ten fiery circles," instead of seven, as in profane or exoteric doctrine.
The Jewish Quabbalah is based upon the intrinsic values and virtues of Ten Sephiroth, that is, planetary orbits, and Kether, the crown of Macroprosopus, was Vulcan’s orbit. "In His form (in the form of the Ancient One) existeth the equilibrium; it is incomprehensible, it is unseen." - Quabbalah, Mathers, Art. 7.
The Egyptian Isis was a deific individual dwelling in a realm of supernal light, and, reduced to personification in feminine gender, she is feigned to boast that "No man has lifted my veil or seen my face."
The Jews always worshiped an invisible deity situated in a place too intensely light to gaze upon.
While it is perhaps impossible to find any direct reference to an intra-Mercurial planet in any ancient history or mythology, it may, nevertheless, be indirectly inferred that the elements of an intra-Mercurial planet were used by the ancient Egyptian astrologers as early as the times of the Pyramid Builders. The evidence of this is contained in their well known doctrine of "combustia," which was referred to by Ptolemy in several instances, and which has always been a cardinal doctrine in every system of astrology derived from the Egyptian and Chaldean sources. The doctrine of combustia is, in brief, that when any planet is within a few degrees of the Sun, usually supposed to be 8° 30’, it is in a state of combustia, that is, burnt up, and its virtues destroyed by that position. Ptolemy refers to this in the last sentence of Chapter 7, Book 2, of the Tetrabiblos.
Wilson, who was a translator of Ptolemy, states in his Dictionary of Astrology, under the head of "combustion": "It is said by Ptolemy that a planet when combust can neither save nor destroy, but it impregnates the Sun with its power, whether good or evil." This effect is the same on the Sun as that of the tunic of the Centaur was upon Hercules, in Greek fable, and the Sun is undisturbed by the burnings of combustia, as was also Herculese in the midst of the burning Mt. Aetna.
Mercury and the Sun are never "via combustia," but every other planet, and particularly the Moon, are powerfully affected in some strange manner, though irregularly, when within a few degrees of the Sun.
This fact that the planets often, but not always exhibit some strange and unaccountable detriment when within 8° of the Sun is only to be explained by the presence of an intra-Mercurial planet. It has been found by modern investigators that in nearly half the cases examined the doctrine of combustia would hold good, but in something over half the cases it fails. This showing gives rise to the suspicion that the effects noted were caused by something that is only about half the time in position to be operative, indeed, it must be caused by an intra-Mercurial planet which is about half the time on one side of the Sun and half the time on the other.
The very early Atlantean astrologers who belonged to the Pyramid Observatory class, knew all about Vulcan and possessed the complete tables of his motion, but after the decadence of the Pyramid Builders and the substitution of the hideous rites of religious worship in the place of scientific observation, the ephemerides of Vulcan were lost and could not be recovered under the deadly blight of the "holy men" who succeeded the "wise men." In this absence of the tables of Vulcan the best that could be done was simply to call any planet combust that was near enough to the Sun to be within his orbit, and thus the astrological doctrine of combustia is seen to be a relic and fragment of the ancient exact assignment of effect to an intra Mercurial planet.
A spotted panther or leopard carrying a human head on his back and the head having two wings, was the Egyptian glyph for a secret and unknown element, later by the Greek called Bacchus riding on a panther. It was the Sun, covered with spots like a leopard, and Vulcan, like a human head with wings. Ceremonially, the Egyptian Magi in the official dress of a leopard’s skin representing the Sun, Vulcan by the headdress.
There are a number of observations on record, particularly in the last two centuries, of the transit of an intra-Mercurial planet over the Sun’s disk, but for present use I will go no further back than the observation of Dr. Alischer, of Faure, France, March 27, 1720. Alischer, on this date, saw a dark body pass from east to west across the Sun’s disk, and his calculations based on its size and speed, proved it to be an intra-Mercurial planet. Again, on March 15, 1721, Alischer witnessed another transit of exactly the same nature, the two observations being 353 days apart. More than a century and a half later this same recurrence of two transits separated by an interval of about 353 days was noted by other observers.
Since Alischer’s time a number of observations have been recorded of the transit of an intra-Mercurial planet, and I give below a list of such as may be considered fairly authenticated.
I use the observation of Lescarbault of France, on March 26, 1859, and the observation of Captain Isbester, June 25, 1907, as two that are absolutely authenticated. Leverrier tested that of Lescarbault, and I have settled the fact of Isbester’s report.
There is an intra-Mercurial planet. It has been seen. No doubt remains that it exists, and I here abandon all controversy on that point, I accept the name "Vulcan" for it, and for the use of astrologers I give it this symbol: (arrow pointing downwards)
List of Observed Transits of Vulcan
1 Dr. Aliseher, Faure, France, (O.S.) March 27, 1720 I 68376
THE OBSERVATION OF 1907
About the last days in June, 1907, an article appeared in the local columns of one of the Portland, Oregon, daily newspapers giving an account of the observation of a singular "Sun spot" by Captain Isbester about June 23, 1907. A few months later I visited the hydrographic office in the customs house at Portland and made inquiry regarding Isbester’s report upon the observation mentioned in the newspaper. Mr. McNulty, who was in charge of the hydrographic office, stated that the newspaper account was in the main correct, but upon looking over his letter files it was found that he had given the date of Captain Isbester’s observation as June 25, and not 23 as the newspaper had it. I also met a gentleman at the hydrographic office who was well acquainted with Isbester and remembered all the Captain had said about the Sun spot. This man had heard Isbester tell the story repeatedly, and briefly it is as follows:
The British ship Dalgonar, from Hamburg to Portland, Oregon, Captain Isbester master, was in longitude 1360 west and latitude 460 north on June 25, 1907. This is about 250 miles off the Northern California coast. The weather was clear and sultry, and when the Captain took the noon observation for declination with the sextant he noticed a very large spot on the disk of the Sun. The spot was of immense size and the Captain was much surprised at its general appearance, for it was unlike the commoner Sun spots which he had seen almost daily for many years. It had a singular motion and the Captain in trying to describe it said "it looked like an inverted balloon." It moved with easily noticeable speed and passed off the Sun’s disk late in the afternoon.
This is the testimony as I secured it, and from it I concluded that the Captain had witnessed the transit of an intra Mercurial planet. He said the spot looked like an inverted balloon. Now that is just the shape Venus appeared to have at ingress and egress at the transits of June 5, 1761, and June 3, 1769. It is well known that both Venus and Mercury while at internal contact with the Sun’s disk at transits present the appearance of a pear shaped spot, the small end elevated if the planet is north of the solar equator.
Isbester appears to have concluded that the "spot" was on the Sun from noon until late in the afternoon, say a full four hours, being perhaps longitudinally central near noon. This is the same duration of transit that Lescarbault noted 4 hours.
Again, upon comparing the date with previously recorded observations, as on page 5, I found it would coincide quite exactly with most of them if a synodic time of 19.5804 days were assumed for the supposed intra-Mercurial planet.
The Basis of the Tables
How it happens that I should choose to assume, at the beginning of the inquiry, that about 19.5804 days is the synodic time of Vulcan, may be explained, briefly, by reference to the following circumstances:
The great astronomer Leverrier, whose authority is of the first order, found from Lescarbault’s observed timing of a transit, as well as from his own elaborate investigations in to the perturbations of Mercury’s nodes, that an intra-Mercurial planet certainly revolved in a heliocentric period of near 19 days and 17 hours, which would be a synodic time of nearly 21 days. Valz, the noted German astronomer, using Dr. Ritter’s observation, as well as his own elaborate computations, concluded that Vulcan’s sidereal period was 17 days 13 hours, or a synodic time ‘of near 19 days. Thus, two great matematicians equipped with all modern facilities, find that Vulcan must have a sidereal time of about 18 to 19 days. Leverrier gives Vulcan’s sidereal time as 19d 17h; Valz gives it as 17d 13h; but I here give it as 18d 14h 1m.
In the list of observed transits as given on page 5, the last column of figures shows how many days there are between each transit and Isbester’s observation June 25, 1907. Now upon examining the differences in days between these several transits it is found that between list numbers 1 and 2, which are the two observations of Dr. Aliseher, there are 353 days. Also between list numbers 10 and 11, which are observations of the German professionals over a century and three-quarters later, there are 353 days. At another time, between 6 and 7, there are 518 days. Now if we put 18 revolutions into 353 days, and 26 revolutions in to 518 days, the value from such division will be about the same, namely, about 19.5804 if something is allowed as fractional instead of absolutely even days between observations. Furthermore, between list numbers 4 and 5 are 6208 days, and 19.5804 goes into that 317 times with an insignificant remainder. Between 6 and 8 there are 2800 (lays, and 19.5804 goes into that 143 times so exactly as to be exceedingly suspicious that we are using a true divisor. Between 8 and 10 are 5226 days and 19.5804 divides by 267. The figure 19.5804 is about what the mathematicians take to be Vulcan’s synodic time and here we find it dividing the number of days between the several observations with about as much accuracy and uniformity as could well be expected of any mean motion value. It divides the time quite satisfactorily between Alischer and Isbester, between Fritch and Stark, between Schmidt and Dr. Ritter, while between Lescarbault and Isbester the very considable period of 17622.36 days is divided by 19.5804 just 900 times.
The well known law of planetary distances sustains the opinion that about 19 days is the proper sidereal time for an intra-Mercurial planet, and as I take 19.5804 as the synodic time, then its true sideral time must be 18:584, and its daily heliocentric increment in longitude 19.3715°.
The Third Law of the great astrologer Kepler is: "The squares of the times of a planet’s revolution are as the cubes of the mean distance from the Sun."
This law gives rise to a certain consequence in mathematics, which is that a constant value may be found for all ratios between squares of times and cubes of distances in the case of all planets revolving around any primary, and that ratio must be the same for all. Computing upon this proposition for our Sun’s system of planets it is found the value for Venus is the number 133413, and that it is nearly the same for all planets.
The dictum based upon the Third Law is that "If the squares of the periodic times of the planets be divided by the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun the quotients thus obtained are the same for all the planets." (For the solar system this is uniformly about 133413.)
If, now, we take the distance from the Earth to the Sun as 1, then the Third Law of Kepler yields values as in this table. The periodic time is here represented by P, and the mean distance from the Sun by A.
The periodic time as given for Vulcan in this table is computed from synodic time which I have assigned as 19.5804 days. Taking this computed periodic time as 18.584 days and squaring it and then dividing that square value by 133413, which has just been explained to be the constant value of ratio for the Sun’s system, we get the cube of what must be Vulcan’s distance from the Sun where the Earth is 1. Extracting the root from the cube so found we have the value of about 0.13744 for Vulcan’s mean relative distance from the Sun.
Thus it is seen that Vulcan is a lawful member of the system and completes the list of Ten Sephiroth of the Quabbalah and the Ten Orbs of Pythagoras, the Chaldeans and the Atlantean Pyramid Astrologers antedating the Deluge of Deucalion.
There is another law, or theory, which determines the inter-dependence of one planetary orbit upon all the others in any system. It is: "The ratio of a senior planet’s orbit to a junior planet’s orbit is equal to the square of the ratio of the junior planet’s orbital motion to the senior planet’s orbital motion."
Now I have already determined that Vulcan’s periodic time is 18.584 days and his semi-major axis is 0.13744, hence his orbital motion in miles per day must be near 4,257,800. Then by the theory the daily orbital motion of Mercury divided into this must give a number which must be the same as a number found by extracting the square root of the quotient found by dividing Mercury’s semi-major axis in miles by that of Vulcan. The computation gives about 12,700,000 miles as Vulcan’s distance from the Sun, being practically the same as the value found by other methods. Thus a periodic time of 18.584 days for Vulcan is theoretically exact.
THE ELEMENTS OF VULCAN
In the light of the best data obtainable at this day I now proceed to assign the elements of Vulcan and construct his tables. The tables are perhaps not all that could be desired, yet for use in astrology they will be found fairly satisfactory.
I assume that Lescarbault’s observation of Vulcan’s transit was March 26, 1859, noon Greenwich, 5° 19’ Aries. Isbester’s observation June 25, 1907, 8h 39m Greenwich, conjunct in 3° 06’ Cancer.
Vulcan’s mean sidereal time ..18.584 days (18d 14h 1m)
HOW TO COMPUTE VULCAN’S LONGITUDE
It now remains only to construct a set of tables from these elements for finding Vulcan’s longitude at any date and hour. The tables are given together at the end of the booklet for the sake of convenience, and are numbered for reference.
A brief general explanation will perhaps aid somewhat in grasping the proposal plan of computing longitude. In order to find Vulcan’s longitude on any date after 1859 it is necessary to repeatedly add the synodic period to Lescarbault’s time, March 26, 1859, Greenwich noon, which will give the date and hour of any subsequent inferior conjunction with the Sun, and the Sun’s longitude on that date and hour must also be the longitude of Vulcan at that time. Table 2 facilitates such addition. Now the inferior conjunction of an intraTellurian planet, that is, one inside the Earth’s orbit, will be while the planet is retrograde in motion, changing soon to direct and again to retrograde during its synodic period, and a table must be constructed to exhibit that motion in the case of Vulcan. Table 5, therefore, is arranged to give the longitude to hours that Vulcan must have minus or plus his longitude at the conjunction. But the table is based upon the assumption that the Sun moves always just 1° per day, which is not the case, hence to longitude found by such a table a correction must be applied, and Table 3 supplies that correction.
It would have required about ten pages of tables to have given each inferior conjunction since 1859, and in this first edition I give only one page of them, Table 1. Any apt computer may find the exact day and hour of any inferior conjunction, Greenwich time, by simply adding 19.5804 days repeatedly to March 26, 1859, noon. In this way find the date and longitude of that inferior conjunction which just proceeds the date and hour to which you are computing the position, and Tables 5 and 3 will give the value minus or plus to be applied for any day and hour following, up to the next conjunction. Table 4 shows the years in which the intercalary days occur at the end of February, and by multiplying years by 365, adding the intercalary days, and then the extra ones after March 26, 1859, up to the date to which you are seeking the position, the number of days are found which are to be divided by 19.5804.
ASTROLOGICAL NATURE AND EFFECT OF VULCAN
So far as may be determined at this day the Astrological Nature of Vulcan is, as the ancients claimed, combustible, fiery, explosive, ethereal and tending to nulify the effects of all planets in bodily conjunction with him (the Sun and Mercury excepted.)
In effect, Vulcan rules the Earth’s atmospheric air motions, barometric pressures; also gases, as well as all gas-producing materials of combustible nature, such as mineral oils, gasoline, powder, sulphur and the like.
I give Vulcan the following- position among" planetary effects:
1 interior of the Sun governs the Earth’s temperature.
IN NATIVITIES - Vulcan appears to nullify the effect of any planet with which he is in bodily conjunction (excepting the Sun and Mercury), but in any other aspect whatsoever, square or trine, he gives a kind of vehement eccentricity of character according with the nature of the planet he aspects. Strange freaks are produced in human nature, mentally and physically, and usually in malevolent form.
VISIBILITY: I may be asked to explain why it is that Vulcan has so rarely been seen at transits, for it is certain that he must transit the Sun’s disk several times every year. My answer is that this intra-Mercurial planet Vulcan is a thin, flat disk of matter, about the density and the toughness of the best vanadium steel. Since the axial rotation would throw his poles nearly at right angles with the ecliptic we can never see the planet at any time on account of the thin edge being always presented to our view. But occasionally Vulcan captures masses of matter in the form of comets that rush in near the Sun and this material, generally in a cloudy form, appears as a globe surrounding the planet. The great axial velocity of the planet soon throws this cloudy matter out into a thin sheet which finally streams into the Sun and is there consumed or lost in the great aggregation of the Sun’s mass. While the clouds are around Vulcan at the time of his transits he may be seen, but as he throws off the clouds in a few days there are many years together when he can never be seen. If this planet is observed once it is probable he can be seen again in just 353 days later, unless he has thrown off his cloak in the meantime. But if he has divested himself of the cometary clouds before he gets around to the node again he will remain invisible.
L.H. Weston, The Planet Vulcan: History, Nature, Tables, (AFA, Tempe, AZ) _________________________________________________________________________________________
In my next installment(part 2) I will provide tables for Vulcan for the 20th century based on L.H.Weston's work
See here for the tables.
back to main